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                             Table of Contents

......................................................... 3

 1
   

  1.1 ......................................................... 6
  1.2  ............................................... 8
  1.3     .............................. 10
     1.3.1  .......................................... 10
     1.3.2   ................................ 14
     1.3.3   ........................... 16
  1.4   ................................... 17
  1.5   ................................ 18
     1.5.1    .............................. 19
     1.5.2   .............................. 20
     1.5.3  ...................................... 20
  1.6 ......................................................... 21


 2
     

  2.1    UNIX.......................... 22
  2.2     ............................ 24
     2.2.1     .......... 24
     2.2.2 .................................................. 26
        2.2.2.1  .................................... 31
        2.2.2.2  ................................... 31
        2.2.2.3     .................... 31
        2.2.2.4 ""  .................................. 34
  2.3   .......................................... 35
  2.4  ............................................ 36
  2.5     ................................ 37
  2.6 ..................................................... 38


 3
  

  3.1  .............................................. 39
  3.2    ( ).................... 41
  3.3   ........................................ 42
  3.4     ............................... 52
  3.5     ...................... 55
  3.6 ........................................................ 56
  3.7 .................................................... 57


 4
  

  4.1 ....................................................... 59
     4.1.1 .............................................. 59
     4.1.2   ..................................... 62
     4.1.3  .................................... 64
  4.2    ................................. 64
  4.3 ...................................................... 70
  4.4     ( )
        ....................................... 71
  4.5 ..................................................... 73
  4.6    ............................... 73
  4.7   ..................................... 80
  4.8   ............................................ 83
  4.9 ........................................................ 83


 5
      

  5.1 OPEN.......................................................... 86
  5.2 READ.......................................................... 90
  5.3 WRITE......................................................... 95
  5.4    ......................................... 96
  5.5    ,   - -LSEEK 96
  5.6 CLOSE......................................................... 97
  5.7  ................................................ 99
  5.8   .................................. 100
  5.9     .......................... 102
  5.10       .................... 103
  5.11 STAT  FSTAT................................................ 103
  5.12 ...................................................... 104
     5.12.1   pipe................................. 104
     5.12.2   ......................... 106
     5.12.3       .................... 106
     5.12.4  ....................................... 108
     5.12.5 ................................................ 109
  5.13 DUP......................................................... 110
  5.14     ............... 111
  5.14.1       .. 115
  5.14.2   ........................... 118
  5.15 LINK........................................................ 120
  5.16 UNLINK...................................................... 123
  5.16.1   .............................. 125
  5.16.2   .................................... 126
  5.17     ................... 129
  5.18   .............................. 130
  5.19 ...................................................... 131
  5.20 .................................................. 131


 6
 

  6.1      ..................... 137
  6.2   ........................................ 141
     6.2.1 ................................................. 141
     6.2.2    .............................. 143
     6.2.3  ......................................... 145
     6.2.4  ................................... 146
  6.3  ............................................ 147
  6.4   ................................ 150
     6.4.1    ............................ 151
     6.4.2     
            ....................................... 153
     6.4.3  .................................. 156
     6.4.4      .... 158
     6.4.5     -
               .................... 159
  6.5    ................... 159
     6.5.1     .................. 160
     6.5.2  ....................................... 160
     6.5.3    ........................ 161
     6.5.4   ............................... 162
     6.5.5  ........................................ 163
     6.5.6  .................................... 167
     6.5.7    ........................ 168
     6.5.8   ......................... 169
  6.6  ...................................... 170
     6.6.1 ,   ,   .. 171
     6.6.2     ........ 173
  6.7 ....................................................... 175
  6.8 ................................................... 176


 7
 

  7.1  ............................................ 179
  7.2 ...................................................... 187
     7.2.1  ...................................... 190
     7.2.2  ........................................ 197
     7.2.3   ............................. 197
  7.3   ............................... 198
  7.4    ...................... 200
  7.5   ........................................ 204
  7.6    ...................... 213
  7.7   ................................... 215
  7.8   SHELL.................................... 218
  7.9     ......................... 220
  7.10 ...................................................... 223
  7.11 .................................................. 224


 8
     

  8.1   ............................ 232
     8.1.1 ................................................ 233
     8.1.2  ............................... 233
     8.1.3   ....................... 237
     8.1.4  ................................. 238
     8.1.5     ............ 239
     8.1.6     ....................... 241
  8.2  ,   .................... 241
  8.3 ....................................................... 243
     8.3.1  ........................................ 245
     8.3.2   -.......................... 246
     8.3.3  ...................................... 247
     8.3.4   ....................................... 250
     8.3.5    ........................... 251
  8.4 ....................................................... 251
  8.5 ................................................... 251


 9
  

  9.1 ...................................................... 253
     9.1.1     ......... 253
     9.1.2  ...................................... 257
     9.1.2.1      fork........ 259
     9.1.2.2   ................................ 260
     9.1.3  () ........................... 260
  9.2   .......................................... 265
     9.2.1  , -   ..267
        9.2.1.1  fork     ........ 270
        9.2.1.2  exec     ........ 272
     9.2.2 "" ....................................... 274
     9.2.3     ....................... 277
        9.2.3.1     -   278
        9.2.3.2      ...... 282
     9.2.4       ..... 285
  9.3         .. 286
  9.4 ....................................................... 287
  9.5 ................................................... 287


 10
  -

  10.1       .. 290
     10.1.1  ................................... 291
     10.1.2      ........ 293
        10.1.2.1 Open.............................................. 294
        10.1.2.2 Close............................................. 297
        10.1.2.3 Read  Write...................................... 298
        10.1.2.4  .......................... 299
        10.1.2.5 Ioctl............................................. 300
        10.1.2.6  ,      300
     10.1.3   ......................... 301
  10.2  ........................................... 301
  10.3  ....................................... 305
     10.3.1  ...................................... 307
     10.3.2     ............. 310
     10.3.3       ... 315
     10.3.4  ........................................ 318
     10.3.5   ..................... 318
     10.3.6   ........................... 319
     10.3.7   ......................................... 319
  10.4 ...................................................... 320
     10.4.1    ................... 324
     10.4.2  ......................................... 326
  10.5 ...................................................... 327
  10.6 .................................................. 327


 11
 

  11.1  ....................................... 330
  11.2     V ................. 334
     11.2.1 .............................................. 335
     11.2.2  ...................................... 341
     11.2.3 ............................................... 344
     11.2.4  ........................................ 353
  11.3   ....................................... 354
  11.4 ...................................................... 355
  11.5 ...................................................... 360
  11.6 .................................................. 360


 12
 

  12.1 ,    .......... 362
  12.2    ............................ 363
  12.3 .................................................... 365
     12.3.1  .................................. 366
     12.3.2  ................................... 367
     12.3.3  ..................................... 374
        12.3.3.1  .................................. 374
        12.3.3.2 Wait.............................................. 377
        12.3.3.3 .......................................... 377
        12.3.3.4  ................................ 378
  12.4  TUNIS............................................... 378
  12.5      ..... 379
  12.6 .................................................. 379


 13
 

  13.1  ..................................... 382
  13.2   NEWCASTLE........................................ 390
  13.3 ""   ................ 393
  13.4     ............ 396
  13.5 ...................................................... 397
  13.6 .................................................. 398




   ............................................... 400
      access....................................................... 400
      acct......................................................... 400
      alarm........................................................ 400
      brk.......................................................... 401
      chdir........................................................ 401
      chmod........................................................ 401
      chown........................................................ 401
      chroot....................................................... 401
      close........................................................ 402
      creat........................................................ 402
      dup.......................................................... 402
      exec......................................................... 402
      exit......................................................... 402
      fcntl........................................................ 403
      fork......................................................... 404
      getpid....................................................... 404
      getuid....................................................... 404
      ioctl........................................................ 404
      kill......................................................... 404
      link......................................................... 405
      lseek........................................................ 405
      mknod........................................................ 405
      mount........................................................ 406
      msgctl....................................................... 406
      msgget....................................................... 407
      msgsnd  msgrcv.............................................. 407
      nice......................................................... 408
      open......................................................... 408
      pause........................................................ 409
      pipe......................................................... 409
      plock........................................................ 409
      profil....................................................... 410
      ptrace....................................................... 410
      read......................................................... 410
      semctl....................................................... 411
      semget....................................................... 412
      semop........................................................ 412
      setpgrp...................................................... 413
      setuid....................................................... 413
      shmctl....................................................... 413
      shmget....................................................... 414
      shmop........................................................ 414
      signal....................................................... 415
      stat......................................................... 416
      stime........................................................ 416
      sync......................................................... 416
      time......................................................... 416
      times........................................................ 417
      ulimit....................................................... 417
      umask........................................................ 417
      umount....................................................... 418
      uname........................................................ 418
      unlink....................................................... 418
      ustat........................................................ 418
      utime........................................................ 419
      wait......................................................... 419
      write........................................................ 419
  ..................................................... 420


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